Operational Data Provisioning (ODP)
What is Operational Data Provisioning (ODP)?
In the BW context there are three scenarios. First of all ODP is used as new extraction framework in the SAP Business Suite for BW Extractors. The overall extraction framework is still the same as before. Mostly the new Operational Delta Queue (ODQ) comes here to play that provides a better option of establishing delta extraction into BW.
The second scenario is where data from a source system is realtime replicated via SLT. Within SLT an ODQ can be established as well that then feeds into BW either via BW's near real-time daemon (RDA) or into an InfoProvider via a DTP.
The third scenario is for analytical reporting on top of ODP Providers. This leverages the Embedded BW in a Business Suite system.
The SAP Help documentation of ODP you can find via the following link.
There is also a great FAQ that @Marc Hartz posted that explains all details around BW & ODP.
The BW 7.5 roadmap describes some new features on slide 34.
How do I set up ODP for analytical reporting in ECC directly or extraction into BW?
See the falling link for a detailed step by step guide on how to set up ODP.