I have seen quite some high level questions about processes in Pharma and how SAP can cover those. As it is very difficult to answer those questions in a single Q&A thread in SCN I would like to point out 2 things. First check out the blogs and documents tagged "pharma-for-beginners". Those provide a high level intro into the Pharma Industry. Second, check SAP Best Practices for Pharmaceuticals. This is a collection of documents that shall support the fast implementation of ERP in a pharmaceutical environment.
Using all the documents incl. the master data files would allow to build an entire ERP system with all the data required and running the pre-defined sample processes. But for starters the documents provide a great overview on business processes in Pharma.
Here is how you get to this content: Go to http://help.sap.com, select "SAP Best Practices", expand the "Industry Packages" branch and click on "Pharmaceuticals". There you'll find a section with the "SAP Best Practices for Pharmaceuticals" package in the latest version. Click on the language link to open the content.
This is the direct Link but this may change with the next version: http://help.sap.com/saap/sap_bp/baio_frame/PH_ERP606_EN_US.html
I hope this helps.